RACIAL AND ETHNIC GROUPS

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Answer the following:

  • What are the sources of pediatric primary care in the United States? Are these sources sufficient for providing health-care services to the pediatric population? Why or why not?
  • Are there certain pediatric populations that lack access to health-care services? Why?
  • What are the barriers to children in accessing health-care services in the United States? Why do these barriers exist?

References:

Burns, C., Dunn, A., Brady, M., Starr, N., Blosser, C. (2016). Pediatric primary care: A handbook for nurse practitioners, (6th ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders. ISBN:9780323243384

Goolsby, M. J. & Grubbs, L. (2014). Advanced assessment: Interpreting findings and formulating differential diagnoses, (3rd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis. ISBN: 9780803643635

Hay, W., Levin, M., Deterding, R. Abzug, M. & Sondheimer, J. (2014). Current Diagnosis and Treatment: Pediatrics, (23rd ed.). Mc-Graw Hill. ISBN: 9780071848541

Chiocca, E. M., (2014). Advanced Pediatric Assessment (set ebook) (2nd ed.). Springer Publishing. ISBN: 9780826128683

Chiocca, E.M., (2014). Study Guide to Accompany Advanced Pediatric Assessment, (2nd ed.). Springer Publishing Company. ISBN: 9780826161772

BELOW IS AN EXAMPLE OF THE ASSIGNMENT:

What are the sources of pediatric primary care in the United States? Are these sources sufficient for providing health-care services to the pediatric population? Why or why not?

Pediatric care sources have drastically improved over the last several years due to continued research in pediatrics, quality improvements made to increase the quality of care given by healthcare facilities, research/businesses, and the funding by the government. With all the extra added effort, time, money, and research, our healthcare system continues to have voids. The voids are: access and quality of healthcare and improvement, as well as flaws in the performers of healthcare. Careful consideration has been made to incorporate clinical based guidelines and decision trees to drive professionals to reach their maximum potential in healthcare, yet millions of children each year die due to preventable diseases like pneumonia. The access and education in healthcare has greatly improved, however as healthcare providers, we lack in the delivery of patient care due to many barriers. The delivery of pediatric care has been enhanced by many pediatric programs. Pediatric programs used by many practitioners and patients are: Healthy People 2010 and 2020, Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP), United Nations Children’s Funds (UNICEF), United Nations Convention on Rights of Children (UNCRC), Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG), and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). These types of organizations all work to provide pediatric services to a vulnerable population. With all these types of programs, research, and time invested in the pediatric group, there still continues to be a gap in healthcare for this population and the only question that could arise is why?

The pediatric population needs a “medical home” for healthcare instead of episodic care in clinics and in emergency rooms. Despite all the research, educational literature, vaccinations, and many other interventions, mortality rates still continue to climb. The pediatric population mortality rates continue to be high at sixty-eight percent in the Unites States alone (Burns, Dunn, Brady, Starr, & Blosser, 2013). These rates are preventable if we could increase compliance for the pediatric population, increase access to well childcare and immunizations (pneumonia), mortality rates could drastically decrease therefore leaving a higher cure rate and a decreased mortality rate. As healthcare providers, we know that the children are vulnerable. We as practitioners must decrease cultural barriers for pediatric patients as well as increase access to care for a healthier future.

Are there certain pediatric populations that lack access to health-care services? Why?

There are pediatric populations/families that lack access to care. So, the answer to this question is: Yes. Some people may lack healthcare knowledge as well as financial means to care at no fault of their own. Individuals also may lack transportation services to healthcare providers. Assistance from services as in the government (Medicaid/Medicare), programs like Florida Kid Care, waivers for the elderly population, state funds, and most services come with a price or penalty and even with high payment for middle class families, plus copays and deductible/ out of pocket amounts. Many parents cannot provide the daily necessities to their children with government assistance; at times daily necessities must come before healthcare. In the U.S. today, there is still a considerable amount of fetal demise and maternal/fetal complications. Whether the lack of care is placed on the mother due to cultural obligations in pregnancy, decreased access to care, or cultural barriers; we must educate our patients on the importance of preventing curable diseases with routine prenatal visits. “Infant mortality is an important indicator of the health of a nation” (Cash & Glass, 2014 p.389), and for as advanced as we are in the U.S., we sure do lack in many ways. I feel that it does not look professionally if we can keep up on our technological world and not the care of our bodies while pregnant. There are still a high number of children who use episodic care in the ER due to practitioners not accepting government assisted programs. The reimbursement rates are slowly killing small doctor offices and forcing out of business or to sign on as a partner at a local hospital. The practitioner’s office is often double booked causing a back-up of patients and a lack of access to care due to patient wait times. As practitioners, we must motivate our pediatric families in getting the recommended care in a timely fashion in order to use the research-based preventative medicine that research has so graciously given us.

What are the barriers to children in accessing health-care services in the United States? Why do these barriers exist?

There are many barriers to healthcare for the pediatric population. First, the pediatric population is a vulnerable group of individuals that solely depend on responsible adults to care for them. These children rely on many family members, friends, and mentors for their care that they need. If the care is not provided by the appropriate individuals in a timely fashion, it can place undue burden to other individuals. As a country, we need to teach individuals on how to be responsible, dependable, and motivated regarding the life of their children. Second, there are can be financial barriers in accessing healthcare. Many Americans that pay out of pocket for their insurance are financially burdened. I have heard from many individuals that they would be willing to pay the penalty of not having healthcare insurance instead of the dreaded monthly bill dedicated to the insurance companies or the government. Thirdly, actual transportation to the PCP’s office places a burden to individuals who simply cannot afford a car, gas money, or car insurance. Fourth and final barrier to access healthcare is due to the large melting pot we have in here in the U.S. The U.S. also gives care to the immigrants and illegal individuals in the US which places more strain on the healthcare world. Our country is made up of a variety of cultures that either have the same or different language, values, morals, and beliefs. Family traditions regarding healthcare are helpful to the patient only if it does not place harm to the child. It is our job as healthcare professionals to be culturally sensitive and provide the best care in a cost-effective manner in a language suitable for their culture, involving translators. (Matteliano & Street, 2012).

References:

Burns, C. E., Dunn, A. M., Brady, M. A., Starr, N. B., & Blosser, C. G. (2013). Pediatric primary care(5th Ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders.

Cash, J. C., & Glass, C. A. (2014). Family practice guidelines (3rd Ed.). New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.

Matteliano, M. A., & Street, D. (2012). Nurse practitioners contributions to cultural competence in primary settings. The Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioner, 24, 425-435.

 

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DISPARITIES IN HEALTHCARE QUALITY AMONG RACIAL AND ETHNIC GROUPS Selected Findings From the 2011 National Healthcare Quality and Disparities Reports Introduction Each year since 2003, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) has reported on progress and opportunities for improving health care quality and reducing health care disparities. As mandated by the U.S. Congress in 42 U.S.C. 299, the National Healthcare Quality Report (NHQR) focuses on “national trends in the quality of health care provided to the American people” while the National Healthcare Disparities Report (NHDR) focuses on “prevailing disparities in health care delivery as it relates to racial factors and socioeconomic factors in priority populations.” Racial and Ethnic Minorities In 2010, about 41% of the U.S. population identified themselves as members of racial or ethnic minority groups. More than half of the growth in the total population of the United Sta

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